Musculoskeletal Healing Research
Enwemeka, C., Parker, J., Dowdy, S. et al (2004). The efficacy of low power lasers in tissue repair and pain control: a meta-analysis study. Photomedicine & Laser Surgery 22(4):323-9.
Junichiro Kubota M.D.Laser and Sports Medicine in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Bjordal, J.M., Lopes-Martins, R.a., Iversen, V.V. (2006). A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendonitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations. British Journal of Sports Medicine 40(1):76-80. Abstract: Background: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has gained increasing popularity in the management of tendinopathy and arthritis. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that inflammatory modulation is one of several possible biological mechanisms of LLLT action. Objective: To investigate in situ if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the human Achilles tendon. Subjects: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendinitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms produced by pain inducing activity immediately before the study. Method: Infrared (904nm wavelength) LLLT (5.4J per point, power density 20mW/cm2) and placebo LLLT (0J) were administered to both Achilles tendons in random blinded order. Results: Ultrasonography Doppler measurements at baseline showed minor inflammation through increased intratendinous blood flow in all 14 tendons and measurable resistive index in eight tendons of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.95). Prostoglandin E2 concentrations were significantly reduced 75,90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared with concentrations before treatment (p = 0.026) and after placebo LLLT (p= 0.009). Pressure pain threshold had increased significantly (p = 0.012) after active LLLT compared with placebo LLLT: the mean difference in the change between the groups was 0.40 kg/cm2 (95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.70). Conclusion: LLLT at a dose of 5.4J per point can reduce inflammation and pain in activated Achilles tendinitis. LLLT may therefore have potential in the management of diseases with an inflammatory component.
Naeser M A (2006). Photobiomodulation of Pain in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Review of Seven Laser Therapy Studies. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 24 (2):101-110.
Sterioulas, A. (2004). Low level laser treatment can reduce edema in second degree ankle sprains. J Clin Laser Med Surg 22(2): 125-8.
Neves M A I, Pinfildi C E, Wood V T, Gobbato R C, da Silva F M, Parizotto N A, Hochman B, Ferreira L M. (2011). Different Power Settings of LLLT on the Repair of the Calcaneal Tendon. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 2011 June. Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 830-nm GaAlAs diode laser operating at output powers of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mW and energy density of 30 J/cm2 on the repair of partial calcaneal tendon ruptures in rats. Methods: A partial tendon rupture was induced in all animals, which were treated with laser irradiation for 5 consecutive days. Six days after injury, the injured tendons were removed and examined by polarized light microscopy. Collagen fiber organization was evaluated by birefringence measurements, and collagen content was determined by Picrosirius Red staining. Results: It was observed that the higher the output power (60–100 mW) the greater the amount of type III collagen (p<0.01). The amount of type I collagen was significantly greater (p=0.05) in the 80 mW group than in the control group (sham stimulation). A non-statistically significant improvement in the realignment of collagen fibers was observed in the irradiated groups. Conclusions: Low-level laser therapy resulted in significantly greater amounts of type III collagen (output powers of 60 mW or more) and type I collagen (output power of 80 mW), however, no significant differences between groups were found in the realignment of collagen fibers.
Z; Ivankovich AD; Depolo A., Simunovic (2004). Wound healing of animal and human body sport and traffic accident injuries using low-level laser therapy treatment: a randomized clinical study of seventy-four patients with control group. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery: 18 (2):67-73.
Evcik, D., Kavuncu, V., Cakir, T., Subasi, V., Yaman, M. (2007). Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Photomedicine & Laser Surgery 25 (1):34-39.
Al-Shenqiti, M.D. & J. Oldham (2003). The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of trigger points that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis. SPIE Volume 5287, pp.91-101.
Simunovic Z, Trobonjaca T, Trobonjaca Z (1998). Treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis – tennis and golfer’s elbow – with low level laser therapy: a multicenter double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on 324 patients. Journal of Clinical Lasers in Medicine and Surgery 16 (3): 145-151.
Z; Ivankovich AD; Depolo A., Simunovic (?)(2004?). Wound healing of animal and human body sport and traffic accident injuries using low-level laser therapy treatment: a randomized clinical study of seventy-four patients with control group. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery: 18 (2):67-73.
Ng, G., Fung, D., Leung, M., Guo, X. (2004). Comparison and single and multiple applications of GaAIAs laser on rate medial collateral ligament repair. Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 34(3): 285-289.
In Vitro Studies
Ph.van der Veen, Y de Rop, P. Lievens ( ). The influence of IR-Laser on the proliferation of fibroblasts: An in-vitro study.